|a 1. Perspectives on the sectional conflict. The second American Revolution / James M. McPherson ; The Civil War as a crisis in gender / LeeAnn Whites ; The first occupation / Edward L. Ayers -- 2. The slave South. Frederick Law Olmsted observes Southern lassitude, 1854 ; Hinton Rowan Helper exposes Southern economic backwardness, 1857 ; James Henry Hammond claims Southern cultural superiority, 1845 ; George Fitzhugh praises Southern society, 1854 ; J.D.B. DeBow explains why nonslaveholders should support slavery, 1860 ; An abolitionist journal condemns slavery and the slave trade, September 1837 ; N.L. Rice, a proslavery minister, blames abolitionists for the slave trade, October 1845 ; Antebellum Southern exceptionalism / James M. McPherson ; The domestic slave trade / Steven Deyle -- 3. The impending crisis. The Independent Democrats protest the Kansas-Nebraska bill, January 1854 ; Senator Stephen Douglas of Illinois explains the objectives of his bill, February 1854 ; Senator Robert Toombs of Georgia insists on Congress's responsibility to protect slavery in the territories, January 1856 ; Senator William H. Seward of New York warns of an irrepressible conflict, October 1858 ; Senator Albert G. Brown of Mississippi denounces the federal government for failing to protect the South, December 1859 ; The Republican party and the slave power / William E. Gienapp ; Kansas, Republicanism, and the crisis of the Union / Don E. Fehrenbacher -- 4. Sectionalism and secession. Ralph Waldo Emerson condemns the South for the assault on Charles Sumner, February 1857 ; Abraham Lincoln addresses the issue of sectionalism, February 1860 ; South Carolina declares and justifies its secession, December 1860 ; Mississippi's secession commissioner urges Georgia to secede, December 1860 ; Confederate Vice President Alexander H. Stephens identifies "the cornerstone of the Confederacy," March 1861 ; The crisis of American nationality / Susan-Mary Grant ; The political ideology of secession in South Carolina / Manish Sinha -- 5. Generals and campaigns: how they fought. General George B. McClellan gives President Lincoln a lesson in grand strategy, July 1862 ; General Robert E. Lee reports his army's success in the Seven Day Battles, July 7, 1862 ; Lee seizes the opportunity to invade Maryland, September 1862 ; General Ulysses S. Grant transmits his plan for the overland campaign, April 1864 ; Grant recalls his thoughts on the eve of the overland campaign, 1886 ; General William T. Sherman explains how the war has changed, September 1864 ; General Grant reports his assignment accomplished, July 1865 ; The 1862 Richmond campaign as a watershed / Gary W. Gallagher ; The significance of the overland campaign, Spring 1864 -- 6. Soldiers and combat: why they fought. John H. Cochran, C.S.A., argues that secession will protect slaveholders, March 1861 ; Charles Harvey Brewster, U.S.A., rejects accommodation with slaveholders, March 1862 ; Charles Wills, U.S.A., comments on his duty to runaway slaves, April 1862 ; Eugene Blackford, C.S.A., describes his first experience of combat, July 1861 ; Wilbur Fisk, U.S.A., discusses morale among the soldiers, April 1863 ; Tally Simpson, C.S.A., reports on the aftermath of Gettysburg, July 1863 ; Confederate enlistment in Civil War Virginia / Aaron Sheehan-Dean ; White Union soldiers on slavery and race / Chandra Manning -- 7. The Northern home front . The president of the Detroit Ladies Aid Society calls on women to assist the war effort, November 1861 ; Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton appeal to Northern women's loyalty, March 1863 ; Cincinnati sewing women protest their wartime wages, February 1865 ; Henry W. Bellows explains the work and goals of the Sanitary Commission, January 1864 ; President Lincoln addresses the Philadelphia Central Fair, June 1864 ; Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase appeals to the public for financial support, July 1861 ; The New York Tribune supports expansion of the government bond drive, March 1865 ; The problem of women's patriotism / Nina Silber ; Jay Cooke and the war bond drives / Melinda Lawson -- 8. The Southern home front. Governor Joseph E. Brown of Georgia denounces Confederate policy, September 1862 ; Eliza Adams seeks assistance from the Confederate government, 1862 ; Plain folk protest the burden of the war, February 1863 ; The North Carolina legislature protests the Confederate draft and martial law, May 1864 ; Catherine Edmonston of North Carolina discusses matters public and domestic, January 1865 ; Cornelia Peake McDonald comments on class and conscription, March 1865 ; Elizabeth Patterson of Virginia tries to reconcile her loyalty and her "misfortune," March 1865 ; Patriotism, sacrifice, and self-interest / Drew Gilpin Faust ; Southern families and their appeals for protection / Amy Murrell Taylor ; Confederate pollicymaking produces innovation and controversy / Paul D. Escott -- 9. Ending slavery. General Benjamin F. Butler discovers the "contrabands," July 1861 ; The Freedmen's Inquiry Commission considers policy toward the former slaves, June 1863 ; President Lincoln defends emancipation (the Conkling letter), August 1863 ; The U.S. adjuntant general describes the condition of fleeing slaves, August 1863 ; Joseph Miller, U.S.A., protests the mistreatment of his family by the U.S. army, November 1864 ; James H. Payne, U.S.A., complains of racial discrimination on the battlefield, August 1864 ; Frederick Douglass states the freedmen's demands, April 1865 ; Gertrude Thomas decries her slaves' departure, May 1865 ; Abraham Lincoln and the Conkling letter, 1863 / Allen C. Guelzo ; The African American role in Union victory / Joseph T. Glatthaar -- 10. Northern Republicans and Reconstruction policy. Richard H. Dana, Jr., presents his "grasp of war" theory, June 1865 ; Senator Lyman Trumbull of Illinois explains his civil rights bill, January and April 1866 ; Representative Thaddeus Stevens of Pennsylvania states his terms, January 1867 ; Representative George W. Julian of Indiana defines the scope of Reconstruction, January 1867 ; Senator John Sherman of Ohio urges caution and moderation toward the South, February 1867 ; Congress's terms for readmission and reconstruction, June 1866 and March 1867 ; Albion Tourgee, a North Carolina Republican, later condemns Congress's Reconstruction policy, 1879 ; The radical Republicans / Eric Foner ; The conservative basis of radical Reconstruction / Michael Les Benedict -- 11. Life and labor in the South after emancipation. Mattie Curtis remembers her struggle after emancipation (undated) ; A Georgia planter requests that freedwomen be required to work, April 1866 ; Henry Adams reports on women and fieldwork, 1867 ; A Freedmen's Bureau agent discusses labor relations, November 1867 ; Richard H. Cain of South Carolina stresses the importance of land, February 1868 ; Edward King describes the postwar plantation system in the Natchez district, 1875 ; Freedwomen's reconstruction of life and labor in lowcountry South Carolina / Leslie A. Schwalm ; The Freedmen's Bureau and social control in Alabama / Michael W. Fitzgerald -- 12. Reconstructing Southern politics. The state Colored Convention addresses the people of Alabama, May 1867 ; Former Governor James L. Orr defends South Carolina's Republican government, June 1871 ; Representative Robert B.Elliott of South Carolina demands federal civil rights, January 1874 ; Representative Alexander White of Alabama defends "carpetbaggers," February 1875 ; Albert T. Morgan of Mississippi recalls his achievements as sheriff, 1884 ; A society turned bottomside up / Steven Hahn ; Building citizenship in Louisiana, 1867-1873 / Rebecca J. Scott -- 13. Ending Reconstruction. Senator Carl Schurz of Missouri condemns Reconstruction, January 1872 ; James S. Pike provides a harsh critique of Reconstruction in South Carolina, 1873 ; Representative L.Q.C. Lamar of Mississippi assails Reconstruction, June 1874 ; Governor William P. Kellogg of Louisiana demands punishment for the Coushatta assassins, September 1874 ; Governor Adelbert Ames deplores the violence in Mississippi, September 1875 ; Governor Daniel H. Chamberlain of South Carolina defends conciliation and reform, January 1876 ; President Grant disclaims responsibility for Reconstruction in South Carolina, July 1876 ; Balck workers and the South Carolina government, 1871-75 / Heather Cox Richardson ; Illegitimacy and insurgency in the reconstructed South / Michael Perman -- 14. The Civil War in historical memory. Jubal Early defends the legacy of the Confederacy, August 1873 ; Roger A. Pryor elevates soldiers' heroism over slaves' emancipation, May 1877 ; Frederick Douglass urges Americans to remember the war's true meaning, May 1878 ; William T. Sherman insists there was "right" and "wrong" in the war, May 1878 ; Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., calls for reconciliation, May 1884 ; George W. Williams proposes a monument honoring black soldiers' valor, 1888 ; Walt Whitman speculates that "the real war will never get in the books," 1882-83 ; The origins of Memorial Day in the North and South / David W. Blight ; Black veterans recall the Civil War / W. Fitzhugh Brundage.