Cyberflashing : recognising harms, reforming laws /
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Cyberflashing : recognising harms, reforming laws /

Cyberflashing has been on the rise since the Covid-19 pandemic. This book provides new analysis into the harms of cyberflashing. This timely and unique study considers recent laws in several countries and sets out proposals to criminalise cyberflashing in English law.

Bibliographic Details
Main Authors: McGlynn, Clare (Author), Johnson, Kelly (Author)
Corporate Author: JSTOR
Format: Online Book
Published: Bristol, UK : Bristol University Press, 2021.
Series:Bristol shorts policy and practice.
Access:Online version
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Table of Contents:
  • Front Cover
  • Cyberflashing: Recognising Harms, Reforming Laws
  • Copyright information
  • Table of contents
  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction
  • Recognising women's experiences
  • Cyberflashing terminology
  • Recognising cyberflashing: Nature, extent and harms
  • Reforming the criminal law
  • Beyond the criminal law
  • Part I Recognising Cyberflashing
  • One Cyberflashing as a Sexual Intrusion: Nature, Extent and Motivations
  • How common is cyberflashing?
  • What is cyberflashing?
  • Cyberflashing in public spaces and on public transport
  • Cyberflashing in online dating and hook-up apps
  • Cyberflashing on social media and other digital technologies
  • Why do men send unsolicited penis images?
  • Cyberflashing as 'transactionally' motivated
  • Sexual gratification and exhibitionism
  • Threatening, harassing and causing distress
  • Multiple, overlapping motivations: masculinity, entitlement and control
  • Conceptualising cyberflashing as a sexual intrusion
  • Conclusions
  • Two The Harms of Cyberflashing
  • Harms as gendered, intersectional and contextual
  • Infringing sexual autonomy
  • Sexual violation
  • Humiliation
  • Inducing threat and fear: what might happen next?
  • Cumulative harms and the right to 'everyday life'
  • Broader social and cultural harms
  • Conclusions
  • Part II Reforming the Criminal Law
  • Three Justifying Criminalisation: Recognition, Redress and Justice
  • Challenging criminalisation
  • Complicating criminalisation
  • Justifying criminalisation
  • Recognition and expressive justice
  • The 'under-criminalisation' of women's harms
  • Harm to others and social utility
  • Beyond punitive punishment
  • Conclusions
  • Four Cyberflashing and the Limits of English Criminal Law
  • Cyberflashing as a sexual offence?
  • Cyberflashing as indecent and a public outrage?
  • Cyberflashing as harassment?
  • Cyberflashing as a problematic communication?
  • Conclusions
  • Five Cyberflashing Laws: Comparative Perspectives
  • Scotland: Coercing a person to look at a sexual image
  • Ireland: Intentionally engaging in 'offensive conduct of a sexual nature'
  • Singapore: New offence of sexual exposure
  • United States: From penis images to unsolicited pornography
  • Texas: Unlawful electronic transmission of sexually explicit material
  • California: The FLASH Act (Forbid Lewd Activity and Sexual Harassment)
  • Pennsylvania: Unsolicited dissemination of 'lewd and lascivious' images
  • New York: Sending unsolicited intimate images with intent to harass
  • Chicago: AirDropping intimate images without consent
  • Cyberflashing: A global challenge
  • Conclusions
  • Six Criminalising Cyberflashing: Recommendations for Law Reform
  • Targeting cyberflashing: Crafting a bespoke offence
  • Cyberflashing as a sexual offence
  • All the penises: Not limited to images of the perpetrator's genitals
  • Fake images and imaginary people
  • Target distribution not actual viewing of images
  • The problem with motives