For many years, African Americans were excluded from participation as voters and as candidates in the American political system. With the Civil Rights movement and the passage of the Voting Rights Act in 1965, African-American political participation has increased substantially. Now students, researchers, journalists, and policymakers can turn to the Encyclopedia of African-American Politics for a wealth of objective, accessible information concerning the events, people, organizations, and policies that have figured in the political history of African Americans. This A-to-Z volume examines the role of African Americans in the political process from the early days of the American Revolution to the present. Focusing on basic political ideas, court cases, laws, concepts, ideologies, institutions, and political processes, this book covers all facets of African Americans in American government. Written by a nationally renowned scholar in the field, the Encyclopedia of African-American Politics will enlighten readers to the struggles and triumphs of African Americans in the American political system. Entries include: Abolitionist Movement Black Cabinet Black Panther Party Civil Rights Act of 1964 Emancipation Proclamation Forty Acres and a Mule Freedmen's Bureau Institutional racism Integrationism Lynching Malcolm X Million Man March National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Nation of Islam Pan Africanism Plessy v. Ferguson Religiosity and the Church Reparations White supremacism. Excerpted from Encyclopedia of African American Politics by Robert C. Smith All rights reserved by the original copyright owners. Excerpts are provided for display purposes only and may not be reproduced, reprinted or distributed without the written permission of the publisher.