Background Research

The Library has a large number of subject specific online encyclopedias, companions and handbooks with exhaustive and well-researched entries written by subject experts. These essays are great starting points that can help you to define and focus your topic. Essays generally include bibliographies that will lead you to further sources on your topic.

Reference Works

Oxford Handbooks Online - Criminology & Criminal Justice
A collection of 15 handbooks on topics such as crime prevention, criminological theory, and juvenile crime and juvenile justice.

Oxford Bibliographies - Criminology
Annotated bibliographies of important scholarship on hundreds of topics in criminology. Each bibliography was compiled by a subject matter expert.

SAGE Knowledge
Includes a large selection of encyclopedias about relevant subjects such as the Encyclopedia of Race & Crime, the Encyclopedia of Victimology & Crime Prevention, the Encyclopedia of Juvenile Justice, and the Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory.

Literature Reviews

  Annual Review of Sociology

  Sociology Compass

  Annual Review of Criminology

  Oxford Bibliographies - Criminology

Finding Articles

These search engines will help you identify articles on your research topic. Use HeinOnline and Nexis Uni to search for law review articles.

Key Databases

These search engines will help you identify articles on your research topic. Enter one search term on each line, then use the filters to limit by date range and to focus on subjects that are relevant to your research question.

  Criminal Justice Abstracts (EBSCO)

  Sociological Abstracts (ProQuest)

  PsycINFO (ProQuest)  Tutorial

  Google Scholar

Law Review Articles

Contains full text PDFs of hundreds of law review journals, as well as other law and criminology journals. Select \"Core U.S. Journals\" subset of the Law Journal Library section of the site. Use AND in capital letters when building your search (e.g., race AND sentencing AND disparit* )
Subscription courtesy of the Charles Widger School of Law.

Nexis Uni  Limitations on Use
Provides full-text access thousands of sources including newspapers, news transcripts, court cases, and law reviews. To search law reviews, click Law Reviews under guided search, enter your terms, and select a date range. Formatting in NexisUni is problematic, so you may wish to re-search for a specific article title in HeinOnline in order to get a more readable PDF version of the article.

Philadelphia Newspapers

Philadelphia Inquirer, 1860-2009 (ProQuest Historical Newspapers)
Provides full text access to the complete Philadelphia Inquirer archive up to 2009: the Philadelphia Inquirer (1860-1934), the Philadelphia Inquirer Public Ledger (1934-1969), and the Philadelphia Inquirer (1969-2009). Use Philadelphia Inquirer (NewsBank) for access to current content.

Philadelphia Inquirer, 1981- (NewsBank)
Provides full text access to articles published since 1981. Does not include ads, calendar listings, horoscopes, sports statistics, stock tables, weather forecasts, and puzzles.

Philadelphia Tribune, 1912-2001 (ProQuest Historical Newspapers)
Provides full-text access to articles published between 1912 and 2001. The Philadelphia Tribune is the oldest continuously published African American newspaper in the U.S. More recent articles are available from ProQuest U.S. Newsstream.

Citing Your Sources

Citation and Writing Tools 
A guide by Falvey librarians, with information on citation styles and citation management software. 
Zotero is a free, easy-to-use citation management tool that must be downloaded to your computer. Go to to sign up for your Zotero account and to download the software and the browser plugin. Click here to download a quick-start guide to Zotero.

ZoteroBib is a free web-based tool for creating quick, on-the-fly bibliographies. Click here to download a quick-start guide to ZoteroBib.