Encyclopedias, Handbooks & Companions

The Library has a large collection of reference works, most of them in electronic format. Selected titles are listed below. Discover more encyclopedias, handbooks and companions through a search in the Articles & more file of the Library's catalog. Simply limit your search results to Reference under Format.

Gale Virtual Reference Library
Search multiple encyclopedias simultaneously. GVRL includes the Environmental Encyclopedia, the Encyclopedia of U.S. Political History, and U.S. Environmental Policy and Politics: A Documentary History among many other titles.

Oxford Research Encyclopedias (Oxford University Press)
Offers peer-reviewed topical introductions and literature reviews written by well-regarded authorities.

Oxford Handbooks Online (Oxford University Press)
Each handbook introduces and surveys the state of scholarship through review articles written by leading subject specialists.

Oxford Handbook of Environmental History
Edited by Andrew C. Isenberg. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

Companion to American Environmental History
Edited by Douglas C. Sackman. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2010.

Companion to Global Environmental History
Edited by J. R. McNeill and Erin S. Mauldin. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2012

Oxford Bibliographies (Oxford University Press)  Tutorial
Offers expert literature reviews.

Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History
Edited by Lynn Dumenil. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Chronology of Americans and the Environment
By Chris J. Magoc. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2011.

Books & Book Chapters

Discover relevant monographs on our topic by consulting the following databases.

Books & Media
Includes records of all print and e-books owned by the Library. Books that are currently checked out can be requested through E-ZBorrow or interlibrary loan.

Oxford Bibliographies (Oxford University Press)  Tutorial
Offers expert literature reviews. Expand the Find this resource section for links to local holdings.

WorldCat (FirstSearch)
Offers comprehensive indexing of books published world-wide and highlights those available at Villanova University. Other items can be requested with an online request form. Look for the Borrow from another library link.

Presents an archive of selected core journals and books in the humanities, social sciences and mathematics.

E-ZBorrow and Interlibrary Loan
Requests books that are not available on campus from other libraries.

Journal Articles

The Library subscribes to a large number of history journals. Use the E-Journal Finder or the Articles file in the Library's catalog to look for known references. Request articles from journals that are not part of the Library's collections through interlibrary loan. The Library's blue Findit button serves as a bridge to the full text.

America: History and Life (EBSCO)
Indexes the literature covering the history and culture of the United States and Canada from prehistory to the present. Includes citations for journal and magazine articles, book reviews and dissertations. Abstracts of journal articles are included together with selected full-text. Indexing goes back to 1964.

Historical Abstracts (EBSCO)
Indexes academic journals, magazines, books, book reviews and dissertations that cover world history from 1450 to the present, excluding North American history. Includes abstracts for academic journal articles and selective full-text content. Coverage extends back to 1953.

Provides a full text archive of academic journals and books in the humanities, social sciences, and mathematics. The most recent three to five years of a journal are usually not included.

CQ Researcher (CQ Press)
Features in-depth reports of political and social issues, including health, international affairs, education, the environment, technology and the U.S. economy. Reports include overview, background, current situation, pro/con views, chronology, and a bibliography. The issue tracker links to related reports. Coverage goes back to 1923.

Primary Sources

Here are selected resources with primary sources. Ask for advice and directions if you cannot find what you are looking for. Consult the online Primary Source Research Guide for further details.

Books & Media
Find primary sources in the catalog with keywords such as correspondence, diaries, personal narratives, speeches, documents and sources together with keywords that describe your topic.

WorldCat (FirstSearch)
Includes all books published in English as well as many foreign language works. Highlights publications available at Villanova University. Other items can be requested with a convenient link to an online request form.

New York Times: 1851- (ProQuest Historical Newspapers)
Provides full-text access to the complete New York Times archive except for the most current three years. Use Nexis-Uni for access to current content.

Washington Post Historical: 1877- (ProQuest)
Contains the full text of all Washington Post and Washington Post/Times-Herald title variations, from 1877 until seventeen years ago. For more recent Washington Post articles, see Nexis Uni (1977 - present).

Black Historical Newspapers (ProQuest)  Tutorial
Offers access to the major African American newspapers of the 20th century: the Atlanta Daily World (1931-2003), the Baltimore Afro-American (1893-1988), the Cleveland Call & Post (1934-1991), the Chicago Defender (1910-1975), the Los Angeles Sentinel (1934-2005), the New York Amsterdam News (1922-1993), the Norfolk Journal & Guide (1921-2003), the Philadelphia Tribune (1912-2001), and the Pittsburgh Courier (1911-2002).

The Times
Note: The newspaper is available full text in the database, Lexis-Nexis * [July 1985 - to date]

Nexis Uni  Limitations on Use
Formerly known as LexisNexis Academic. Provides full text access to national and international newspaper and magazine articles and news transcripts, business, company, and industry information in the U.S. and abroad, and legal documents, including U.S. Federal and State court cases, and law reviews. Coverage varies.

Readers' Guide Full Text Mega (EBSCO)
Indexes popular U.S. magazines

Readers' Guide Retrospective: 1890-1982 (EBSCO)
Indexes popular U.S. magazines.

American Periodicals (ProQuest)
Provides access to the full text of American magazines and journals published from the colonial period to the early 20th century.

British Periodicals (ProQuest)
Provides access to British periodicals published from the 17th through the early 20th century with the majority of content from the 19th century. Covers a broad range of topics.

Internet Archive
Provides digital access to books, movies, software, music, websites, and more. Most of the freely available files are books published prior to 1923 and government documents.

Hathi Trust Digital Library
Provides full text access to digital copies of books, pamphlets, and journals available in the public domain. Most of the freely available texts are pre-1923 imprints and government documents.

Citing Your Sources

Chicago Manual of Style Online, 17th ed.
The 17th edition of the Manual is the most current. The online version includes a Citation Quick Guide with examples. The Library's website offers a short introduction and overview to the Notes and Bibliography System commonly used in the humanities.