Recommended Reference Tools

Ancient Greek Authors (Dictionary of Literary Biography Complete Online)
The Dictionary of Literary Biography print series has been a favorite with students and scholars for many years, often the first place to go to find authoritative biographical and critical essays on “the world's most influential literary figures from all eras and genres.”

Brill's New Pauly Online
Provides encyclopedic coverage of people, places, works and subjects related to Greco-Roman antiquity and history from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe, the classical tradition, the aftermath of antiquity, the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, and the field of classical studies scholarship. Source is published English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly (periodically updated). Online access via Brill Online.

Dictionary of Greek and Latin Authors and Texts
Supplement to Brill's New Pauly.

Encyclopedia of Ancient History (Wiley-Blackwell)
Covers all civilizations of the ancient Mediterranean world including the Near East and Egypt.

Literature Criticism Online (Gale)
Provides compilations of literary criticism. Includes the complete runs of Classical and Medieval Literature Criticism, Contemporary Literary Criticism, Drama Criticism, Literature Criticism from 1400 to 1800, Nineteenth-Century Literature Criticism, Poetry Criticism, Shakespearean Criticism, Short Story Criticism, and Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism.

Oxford Bibliographies - Classics
Presents peer-reviewed, annotated bibliographies and expert commentary on current scholarship in all areas of the multidisciplinary field of Classical Studies.

Oxford Companion to Classical Literature
Presents the essential facts about the authors, tales, and characters from ancient myth and literature, but it also places these details in the wider contexts of the history and society of the Greek and Roman worlds. Has extensive biographies of classical literary figures, entries on a multitude of literary styles, many thematic and character entries, and plot summaries for the major figures and myths in the classical canon. Includes an extensive web of cross-references and a useful chronological table and location maps.

Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome
Offers a comprehensive overview of the major cultures of the classical Mediterranean world -- Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman -- from the Bronze Age to the fifth century CE. It also covers the legacy of the classical world and its interpretation and influence in subsequent centuries.

Oxford Research Encyclopedias - Oxford Classical Dictionary
This edition began with all of the articles from the fourth edition, but is regularly expanded with new articles and updated with revisions to previously published articles. It includes images, maps of the ancient world, links, and audiovisual clips.

Recommended Databases

Année Philologique: Bibliography of the Classical World (Brepols)
Indexes and abstracts journal articles, books, book chapters, conference proceedings, and theses relating to all aspects of ancient Greek and Roman civilizations from 200 B.C. to roughly 800 A.D. Includes publications in many languages with abstracts in the major European languages. Coverage extends back to the early 20th century.

Provides a full text archive of academic journals and books in the humanities, social sciences, and mathematics. The most recent three to five years of a journal are usually not included.

OmniFile Full Text Mega (EBSCO)
Offers indexing, abstracts, and selected full text for journals and magazines on a variety of subjects, including art, education, humanities, law, social sciences and technology. Good starting point for interdisciplinary research.

Project Muse
Provides full-text access to books and journals in the arts, humanities, and social sciences.

TOCS-IN (University of Toronto)
TOCS-IN provides the tables of contents of a selection of Classics, Near Eastern Studies and Religion journals. Covers published works from 1992-present.

Companion & Handbook Collections

Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World (Wiley-Blackwell)
The companions cover a wide range of people and subjects from the ancient world including religion, women, gender roles, the army, and families in the Roman world. Each companion synthesizes the state of scholarship and introduces the reader to the sources. While most companions are available online, some are only available in print.

Brill's Companions to Classical Studies (Brill)
The companions cover a wide variety of subjects and persons from Classical Antiquity, and their reception in European culture. Each volume synthesizes the state of scholarship and introduces the reader to the sources. While most companions are available online, some are only available in print including the volume on Writings in Imperial Rome which features chapters on Vergil's geopolitics and Senecan political strategies.

Cambridge Ancient History
Online 3rd edition of a major multi-volume series with scholarly essays that survey ancient Greco-Roman culture from prehistory to late antiquity.

Cambridge Companions to Literature and Classics (Cambridge University Press)
Written by experts and designed for the general reader, the Cambridge Companions to Literature and Classics collection offers over 2000 comprehensive and accessible essays on major authors, periods and genres. For the author Companions, each writer is placed in literary and historical context; their major works are analyzed, either in separate chapters or grouped according to theme, and their influence on later writers assessed. The generic and topical Companions cover periods of English literature such as Old English or the Victorian Novel, and literary genres such as Modernism or Greek Tragedy, giving the reader vital contextual information about political, social, religious and artistic relationships. The Companions to Classical Civilisation examine key periods and aspects of the civilizations of ancient Greece and Rome.

Oxford Handbooks Online: Classical Studies
Each handbook introduces and surveys the state of scholarship in a field of study through review articles written by leading subject specialists. Articles review key issues and debates and set the agenda for new research.

Digital Text Collections

Jacoby Online
A revised and enlarged edition of Brill’s New Jacoby. New additions include an apparatus criticus and a discussion of the provenance of each fragment where relevant, as well as revised commentaries on the ancient historians in BNJ and updated bibliographies, all of which set BNJ2 significantly apart from the previous edition. Like Brill’s New Jacoby, this revised edition has texts and historians not included in Jacoby’s Die Fragmente der Griechischen Historiker I-III. It provides English translations to all testimonia and fragments, critical commentaries, and a brief encyclopedia-style entry about the historian’s life and works, with a select bibliography. Brill's New Jacoby, Second Edition is a work-in-progress with publication of the last historian scheduled for 2026.

Lacus Curtius: Greek and Roman Authors
Features Greek and Roman texts and their translations.

Loeb Classical Library (Harvard University Press)
Offers online access to authoritative editions of Greek and Latin texts. English translations appear on facing pages, following the format of the print editions. The collection is searchable in English and in the original language. Also available in print.

Past Masters (InteLex)
Contains selected full text of scholarly editions of many philosophers, theologians and literary writers: Anselm, Aquinas, Aristotle, Augustine, Austen, Chesterton, Descartes, Dewey, Feuerbach, Fichte, Foucault, Francis of Assisi, Hegel, Hobbes, Hume, Kant, Kierkegaard, Leibniz, Locke, Luther, Machiavelli, Marx and Engels, Merleau-Ponty, Montesquieu, Newman, Nietzsche, Ockham, Pascal, Peirce, Plato, Poinsot, Royce, Santayana, Schopenhauer, Shelley, Spinoza, Synge, Wittgenstein and Wollstonecraft, as well as collections for British Philosophy 1600-1900, The Continental Rationalists, The Latin Background: 1100-1550, and The Romantic Age.

Perseus Digital Library
Covers the history, literature and culture of the Greco-Roman world, including texts and images, and applies what has been learned from Classical Studies to other subjects within the humanities and beyond.

Sources Chrétiennes Online (Brepols)
Provides increasing access to critical editions of texts from the patristic and medieval literature of the catholic tradition which are in the “Sources Chrétiennes” series published by Éditions du Cerf, Paris. Source texts in their various original languages, including Latin, Greek, and Syriac, are accompanied by a French translation. Browsing by volume, as well as searching by volume, author, work or keywords in the source or the translation is enabled.

Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum Online (Brill)  Tutorial
Presents Greek texts of all newly published Greek inscriptions with a critical apparatus and summarizes new readings, interpretations, and studies of known inscriptions, occasionally including the Greek text. Texts which are published in epigraphical corpora, repertoria, or monographs are generally not included. Indexes and cross references to related texts facilitate discovery. The online edition includes all volumes in the series.

Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (University of California, Irvine)  Limitations on Use  Access Instructions
Includes most literary texts written in Greek from Homer (8th century BCE) to the fall of Byzantium (1453 AD).

Dictionaries and Linguistic Resources

Encyclopedia of Ancient Greek Language and Linguistics Online
The EAGLL offers a systematic and comprehensive treatment of all aspects of the history and study of Ancient Greek, comprising detailed descriptions of the language from Proto-Greek to koine. It addresses linguistic aspects from several perspectives including history, structure, individual singularities, biographical references, schools of thought, technical meta-language, sociolinguistic issues, dialects, didactics, translation practices, generic issues, Greek in relation to other languages, etc., and on all levels of analysis including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, lexicon, semantics, stylistics, etc.

Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature

Patristic Greek Lexicon

Online Liddell-Scott-Jones Greek-English Lexicon
"The Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG) is proud to announce the release of a new online version of Liddell-Scott-Jones (LSJ), the premier lexicon for classical Greek. The TLG version represents five years of intensive work to produce a fully edited and searchable version of LSJ with links to the TLG corpus."