What is a primary source?

Primary sources come in a wide variety of formats, but they all have one thing in common: they are original, unfiltered sources that describe people, places and events.

While museums and archives preserve primary sources in their original form, reproductions are available on a variety of platforms: print books, databases, journals, microform, etc.

Primary Sources in the Library's Collection and Elsewhere

Use the Library's catalog and WorldCat to discover primary sources related to your topic. Scroll down for search tips. Contact your librarian for assistance.

Falvey Library Catalog
The Library's catalog enables patrons to search & browse Falvey Memorial Library’s collection of books, journals, audio/video materials, electronic resources and more.

WorldCat (FirstSearch)
Presents a combined catalog of the catalogs of more than 10,000 libraries worldwide. WorldCat highlights publications available at Villanova University. Other items can be requested via an inter-library loan request form.
WorldCat Step-by-Step is a self-paced interactive tutorial for students new to this resource.

Primary Sources

  AncestryLibrary (ProQuest)

  Early English Books Online (Chadwyck-Healy)

  Eighteenth Century Collections Online (Gale)

  Early American Imprints, Series I: Evans, 1639-1800 (Readex)

  Early American Imprints, Series II: Shaw-Shoemaker, 1801-1819 (Readex)

  Sabin Americana, 1500-1926 (Gale)

  U.S. Congressional Serial Set: 1817–1994 (Readex)

  American State Papers: 1789-1838 (Readex)

  American Decades: Primary Sources

  American Founding Era (Rotunda)

  Making of the Modern World, Part I, 1450-1850 (Gale)

  Historic Documents (SAGE)

  Black Abolitionist Papers (ProQuest)

  Gerritsen Collection of Aletta H. Jacobs (ProQuest)

  FBI Case Files (Ancestry.com)

  Readers' Guide Retrospective: 1890-1982 (EBSCO)

  Core Documents of U.S. Democracy

  Doc Heritage (Pennsylvania State Archives)

  Documenting the American South

  Eurodocs: Western European Primary Historical Documents

  From Slavery to Freedom: The African-American Pamphlet Collection 1822-1909

  Historic Government Publications from World War II

  National Security Archive

  History and Politics Out Loud

  World History Archives

  World War I Document Archive

  American Notes: Travels in America, 1750-1920

  Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writer's Project, 1936-1938

  A Century of Lawmaking For a New Nation: US Congressional Documents and Debates

  American Memory (The Library of Congress)

  19th Century Documents Project (Furman University)

  American Journeys

  First-Person Narratives of the American South, 1860-1920

  Chicago Anarchists on Trial: Evidence from the Haymarket Affair 1886-1887

  Immigratiton to the United States, 1789-1930

  Slaves and the Courts 1740-1860

  The Geography of Slavery in Virginia

  Veterans History Project

  Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation

Newspapers & Magazines

  Historical Newspapers (ProQuest)

  New York Times: 1851- (ProQuest Historical Newspapers)

  Washington Post Historical: 1877- (ProQuest)

  Philadelphia Inquirer, 1860-2009 (ProQuest Historical Newspapers)

  Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 1786-2008 (ProQuest Historical Newspapers)

  America’s Historical Newspapers (Readex)

  Black Historical Newspapers (ProQuest)

  African American Newspapers: The 19th Century (Accessible Archives)

  American Indian Newspapers (Adam Matthew Digital)

  Moscow News Digital Archive (East View)

  Irish Times (ProQuest Historical Newspapers)

  Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers

  American Periodicals (ProQuest)

  LGBT Magazine Archive

  LGBTQ Thought and Culture

  Readers' Guide Retrospective: 1890-1982 (EBSCO)

  OpinionArchives

  Civil War: A Newspaper Perspective (Accessible Archives)

  Pennsylvania Gazette: 1728-1800 (Accessible Archives)

  Virginia Gazette

  Lexis Nexis Academic  Limitations on Use

  Times (London) Digital Archive, 1785-2012 (Gale)

  Burney Collection Newspapers: Seventeenth-Eighteenth Century (Gale)

  British Periodicals (ProQuest)

  Nineteenth Century UK Periodicals (Gale)

  Current Digest of the Russian Press

  Pennsylvania Newspaper Record: Delaware County (Accessible Archives)

Types of primary sources

This is a list of common types of primary sources. Use these descriptors as a starting point to query the catalog for primary sources related to your topic.

Diaries
Diaries, journals and excerpts of diaries are not just found in archives and attics, but also published in books. The Library has diaries of famous people, diaries from classes of people such as women or soldiers and diaries from different geographic areas. With some luck you can also find English translations of diaries originally written in a different language.

subject search:  diaries AND "Louis Philippe"
subject search:  diaries AND women
subject search:  diaries AND Germany

Newspapers and magazines
The Library has access to a large number of newspapers either in digital of microform format. Check the catalog for newspapers of interest to your topic and verify whether the Library has access to the relevant time period or browse the list of selected digitally available newspaper titles and collections is available above. You may also be able to request a month or two of a newspaper on microfilm through interlibrary loan.

subject search:  Ireland AND newspapers

Letters
Letters are described in the Library of Congress subject thesaurus with the term "correspondence." Find letters published in books with the help of the online catalog. Include the names of the correspondents in your search query or search by social status and/or occupation.

subject search:  lawyers AND "united states" AND correspondence
subject search:  soldiers AND correspondence
subject search:  Gonne AND Maude AND correspondence

Autobiographies
Please note that the Library of Congress subheading -autobiographies is used exclusively for theoretical works about autobiographies. An author search is generally the best way to find published autobiographies. Biographical dictionaries will also identify published autobiographies. Try words such as memoir as part of a keyword search and/or personal narratives as part of a subject search.

author search:  Frederick AND Douglass
keyword search:  memoirs AND politicians
subject search:  "personal narratives" AND Vietnam

Personal narratives
Personal narratives is a catch-all phrase for memoirs and diaries in the Library of Congress subject heading scheme.

subject search:  "personal narratives" AND Holocaust
subject search:  "personal narratives" AND prisoners

Speeches
Transcripts of famous speeches.

subject search:  speeches AND Martin AND Luther AND King

Travel narratives
Many travel narratives have been penned with future publication in mind and are hence widely available. Travel narratives may also consist of excerpts from letters and diaries. Include the designated Library of Congress subheading for travel narratives, which is "description and travel" into your search query. Note the difference in the number of results when using "description and travel" versus "travel narratives":

subject search:  Russia AND "description and travel"
keyword search:  "travel narratives" AND russia

Sources
"Sources" is a commonly used Library of Congress subject heading to describe all kinds of primary sources.

subject search:  sources AND "cold war"
subject search:  sources AND suffrage

Manuscripts
Research based on manuscripts can be time-consuming and expensive if the manuscripts in question are only available in distant archives. Today, an ever increasing number of manuscripts can be found online in digital form. Many libraries and archives have digitized their rare materials to make them more accessible. Examples include the Library of Congress, the National Archives and Villanova's own digital library. Manuscripts are sometimes also available as facsimile editions in ordinary library books. The catalog records of such published reprints of manuscripts often include the subject "early works to 1800." Below are some suggestions on how to find manuscripts in the catalog.

subject search: "manuscripts medieval"
subject search:  manuscripts AND spain
subject search:  "illumination of books and manuscripts"

Early works to 1800
A Library of Congress subject classification catch-all for books written prior to 1800. Note that the catalog record may show a much more recent publication date, since these books are generally only available as reprints outside of archives.

subject search:  Virginia AND "early works to 1800"
subject search:  reformation AND "early works to 1800"

Other subjects for primary sources in the Library of Congress subject thesaurus include interviews, suveys, maps, pamphlets and treaties.

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